Kubernetes employs a client-server architecture, with a master managing nodes that host containerized applications. Deploying MySQL on Kubernetes requires persistent storage like Amazon EBS for data integrity. Using StatefulSets and Persistent Volume Claims (PVCs) ensures data persistence across pod lifecycles. YAML configurations for PersistentVolume (PV), PVC, and MySQL deployment outline resource definitions crucial for persistent data storage and database operation. Following best practices, including selecting the right storage classes and regular updates, enhances performance and security for MySQL on Kubernetes.